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Washington State University
College of Arts and Sciences Department of Psychology

Diversity Interests of Faculty


My research addresses the challenges of sustaining health and of advancing opportunity and equity.  In the area of health psychology, I examine the long-term adjustment, health and well-being of survivors of childhood cancer and their families. In 2015, I received a grant from the Association for Research of Childhood Cancer to support my research in this area.  In the area of multicultural psychology, I have studied the unique social and ecological circumstances and the corresponding developmental competencies of racial/ethnic minority and/or first-generation students.  I also serve on the advisory board for the Center for Mestizo and Indigenous Research and Outreach at Washington State University which advances interdisciplinary research on social, economic, educational and political issues faced by Latino/Mestizo and Native/Indigenous communities.

Relevant Papers

Bauman, S. S. M., Acker‐Hocevar, M., Talbot, D. L., Visaya, A., Valencia, M., & Ambriz, J. (2019). Exploring and Promoting the College Attendance and Success of Racial/Ethnic Minority Students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development47, 37-48.

Bauman, S., Acker-Hocevar, M., & Talbot, D. (2012). Heuristic understanding as a component of collaborative, interdisciplinary, social justice advocacy research.  Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 4, 59-84.


I am currently using latent variable modeling procedures (e.g., confirmatory factor analysis, structural regression analysis, latent growth analysis, item response theory) to study ADHD, Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, and ODD within and across countries. Current projects focuses on the usefulness of the sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms to improve understanding of ADHD (e.g., longitudinal research with Spanish colleagues on the development of SCT and ADHD-IN symptom dimensions in Spanish children). Students who work with me have the opportunity to examine ethnic and cultural differences in child behavior problems as well as learn advanced measurement and analytic procedures.

Relevant Papers

Burns, G. L., Servera, M., Bernad, M. M., Carrillo, J., & Cardo, E. (in press). Distinctions between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, ADHD-IN and Depression Symptom Dimensions in Spanish First-Grade Children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology.

McBurnett, K., Villodas, M., Hinshaw, S. P., Beaulieu, A., & Pfiffner, L. J. (in press). Structure and Validity of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Using an Expanded Item Pool in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

Lee, S.Y., Burns, G. L., Snell, J., & McBurnett, K. (2013). Validity of the sluggish cognitive tempo symptom dimension in children: Sluggish cognitive tempo and ADHD-Inattention as distinct symptom dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10-1007/s10802=-013-9714-3. 17 January 2013.

Khadka, G., & Burns, G. L. (2013). A measurement framework to determine the construct validity of ADHD/ODD rating scales: Additional evaluations of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35, 283-292.

Burns, G. L., Walsh, J. A., Severa, M., Lorenzo-Seva, U., Cardo, E., & Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2013). Construct validity of ADHD/ODD rating scales: Recommendations for the evaluation of forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 15-26.

Shipp, F., Burns, G. L., & Desmul, C. (2010) Construct validity of ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, ODD toward Adults, academic and social competence dimensions with teacher rating of Thai adolescents. Journal of Pyschopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 557-564.

Moura, M. A. & Burns, G. L. (2010). Oppositional defiant disorder toward adults and oppositional defiant disorder toward other children: Evidence for two separate constructs with mothers’ and fathers’ ratings of Brazilian children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry., 51, 23-30.

Severa, M., Lorenzo-Seva, U., Cardo, E., Rodríguez-Fornells, A., & Burns, G. L. (2010). Understanding trait and source effects in ADHD and ODD rating scales: Mothers’, fathers’ and teachers’ ratings of children from the Balearic Islands. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology., 39, 1-11.


I have established collaborative relationships with researchers from 22 countries, with data collected in Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa, focused on the development of temperament in early childhood. Carmen Gonzalez-Salinas, Ph.D., University of Murcia, Spain and Helena Slobodskaya, M.D., Ph.D., Novosibirsk State University and Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, Russia, were my first international collaborators, exchanging visits and pursuing a variety of projects. Most recently, along with these two collaborators and others from 11 sites around the world, as well as help of Routledge (New York), we published a book addressing cross cultural differences in family dynamics/parenting, toddler temperament, and emerging behavior problems: “Temperament, Parents and Culture: Findings from the Joint Effort Toddler Temperament Consortium (JETTC)”. Drs.  Gonzalez-Salinas and Slobodskaya continue to be my key collaborators in cross-cultural work, as well as Dr. Samuel Putnam (Bowdoin College), as we pursue our common interests in untangling the role of biology and culturally-driven contextual factors in temperament development, and the cascade of risk and protection with respect to developmental psychopathology that ensues.

Relevant Papers

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Kinsht, I.A. (2003). Cross-cultural differences in the first year of life: United States of America (U.S.) and Russian. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 316-328.

Montirosso, R., Cozzi, P., Putnam, S. P., Gartstein, M. A., (2010). Studying cross-cultural differences in temperament in the first year of life: United States of America (US) and Italy. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 27-37.

Gartstein, M.A., Knyazev, G.G., & Slobodskaya, H.R. (2005). Cross-cultural differences in the structure of infant temperament: United States of America (U.S.) and Russia. Infant Behavior and Development, 28, 54-61.

Gartstein, M.A., Gonzalez, C., Carranza, J.A., Ahadi, S.A., Ye, R., Rothbart, M.K., & Yang, S.W. (2006). Studying the development of infant temperament through parent report: Commonalities and differences for the People’s Republic of China, the United States of America, and Spain. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37, 145-161.

Kolmagorova, A.B., Slobodskaya, E. R., Gartstein, M.A. (2008). Adaptation of the Russian version of a questionnaire designed to measure temperament in early childhood. Psychology Journal, 29, 121-136.

Gartstein, M.A., Peleg, Y., Young, B.N., & Slobodskaya, H.R. (2009). Infant temperament in Russia, United States of America, and Israel: Differences and similarities between Russian-speaking families. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 241-256.

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Putnam, S.P., Kinsht, I.A. (2009). A cross-cultural study of infant temperament: Predicting preschool effortful control in the United States of America (U.S.) and Russia. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 337-364.

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Żylicz, P.A., & Nakagawa, N. (2010). A Cross-cultural Evaluation of Temperament Development: Japan, United States of America, Poland and Russia. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10, 55-75.

Gaias, L.M., Räikkönen, K., Komsi, N., Gartstein, M.A., Fisher, P.A., & Putnam, S.P. (2012). Cross-cultural temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 119-128.

Cozzi, P., Putnam, S.P., Menesini, E., Gartstein, M.A., Aureli, T., Calussi, P., & Montirosso, R. (2013). Studying cross-cultural differences in temperament in toddlerhood: United States of America (US) and Italy. Infant Behavior and Development, 36, 480–483.

Gartstein, M.A., Slobodskaya, H.R., Putnam, S.P., & Kirchhoff, C. (2013). Cross-cultural differences in the development of behavior problems: Contributions of infant temperament in Russia and U.S. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 95-104.

Slobodskaya, H.R., Gartstein, M.A., Nakagawa, A., & Putnam, S.P. (2013). Early temperament in Japan, US and Russia: Do cross-cultural differences decrease with age? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 438 – 460.

Sung, J., Beijers, R., Gartstein, M.A., de Weerth, C., & Putnam, S. (2015). Exploring temperamental differences in infants from the United States of America (US) and the Netherlands. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 15-28.

Gartstein, M.A., Putnick, D.L., Kwak, K., Hahn, C., Bornstein, M.H. (2015). Stability of temperament in South Korean infants from 6 to 12 to 18 Months: Moderation by age, sex, and birth order. Infant Behavior and Development, 40, 103-107.

Gartstein, M.A., Carranza, J.A., González-Salinas, C., Ato, E., Galián, M.D., Erickson, N.L. & Potapova, N. (2016). Cross-cultural comparisons of infant fear: A multi-method study in Spain and the US. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47, 1178-1193.

Gartstein, M.A., Meehan, C., & Bogale, W. (2016). Adaptation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised for use in Ethiopia: Expanding cross-cultural investigation of temperament development. Infant Behavior and Development, 45, 51-63.

Desmarais, E., Majdandzic, M., Gartstein, M.A., Bridgett, D.J., French, B. (2017). Cross-cultural differences in temperament: Comparing paternal ratings of US and Dutch infants. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2017.1356713

Krassner, A., Gartstein, M.A., Park, C., Wojciech, D., Lecannelier, F., & Putnam, S. (2017). East-West, collectivist-individualist: A cross-cultural examination of temperament in toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 449-464.

Putnam, S.P. & Gartstein, M.A. (2017). Aggregate temperament scores from multiple countries: Associations with aggregate personality traits, cultural dimensions, and allelic frequency. Journal of Research in Personality, 67, 157-170.


My research centers on examining the role of culture and diversity on mental health service delivery and psychological well-being. My current project looks at stigma towards mental health and help-seeking across cultures, with an attempt to connect the stigma framework to indigenous cultural concepts. In a related project, I am examining how status-based rejection sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity toward rejection due to their stigmatized group status) and ideological preference (e.g., malleable vs. fixed lay theory) would predict stigmatized individuals’ adjustment and well-being. I am also interested in examining psychological assessments and structures across cultures, particularly in the areas of stigma and vocational interests. (See Dr. Liao’s lab for more information)

Relevant Papers

Vogel, D. L., Strass, H. A., Al-Darmaki, F. R., Armstrong, P. I., Baptista, M. N., Brenner, R. E., Gonçalves, M., Heath, P. J., Lannin, D. G., Liao, H.-Y., Mackenzie, C., Mak, W. W. S., Rubin, M., Topkaya, N., Wade, N. G., Wang, Y.-F, & Zlati, A. (2017). Stigma associated with seeking mental health services: Examination across ten countries/regions. The Counseling Psychologist, 45(2), 170-192.

Liao, H.-Y., Spanierman, L. B., Harlow, A. J., & Neville, H. A. (2017). Do parents matter? Examination of White college students’ intergroup experiences and attitudes. The Counseling Psychologist, 45(2), 193-212.

Liao, H.-Y., Hong, Y.-y., & Rounds, J. (2016). Perception of subtle racism: The role of group status and legitimizing ideologies. The Counseling Psychologist, 44(2), 237-266

Yeh, C. J., Liao, H.-Y., Ma, P.-W. W., Shea, M., Okubo, Y., & Kim, A. B., & Atkins, M. S. (2014). Ecological risk and protective factors of depression and anxiety among low-income Chinese immigrant youth. Asian American Journal of Psychology5(3), 190-199.

No, S., Hong, Y.-y., Liao, H.-Y., Lee, K., & Wood, D., & Chao, M. M. (2008). Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans’ responses toward American culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(4), 991-1004

Liao, H.-Y., Rounds, J., & Klein, A. G. (2005). A test of Cramer’s (1999) help-seeking model and acculturation effects with Asian/Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 400-411.


I am interested in native language and ethnicity as a factor in the social and academic development of children. Consistent with this objective, we explore differential outcomes for preschoolers from Spanish- and English-speaking homes that participate in structured learning environments. Results of our investigations suggest differences in how the two groups make sense of emotionally powerful stimuli, how they participate in small-group learning activities, and how teachers evaluate them. Such differences may account for differential educational outcomes across ethnic groups. These investigations are in the service of developing instructional curricula that improve the social and academic performances of preschoolers at risk for school failure.

Relevant Papers

Strand, P.S., Cerna, S., Downs, A. (2008). Shyness and Emotion Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-month Longitudinal Study. Infant and Child Development, 17, 109- 120.

Downs, A. Strand, P., & Cerna, S. (2007). Emotion Understanding In English- and Spanish-speaking Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start. Social Development, 16, 410-439.

Strand, P.S., Cerna, S., & Skucy, J. (2007). Assessment and decision-making in early childhood education. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 209-218 Downs, A. & Strand, P.S. (2006). Using assessment to improve the effectiveness of early childhood education. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 671-680.